Materials and Textures Digital Reconstruction
Reconstructing the Past

Textures for digital reconstruction are selected based on historical description, archaeological findings and recent photographs of actual remaining ruins from Bunce Island and similar photographic evidence from adjacent island structures. Scaling of textures for digital reconstructions, whether representing close proximity or aerial views, is necessary to acheive photorealistic results.

After a structure is drawn in CAD in three dimensions, the surface or skin will have a texture applied and mapped to that surface. Textures can be seen on all of the reconstruction images discussed.

All textures below have been divided into four categories: masonry, terrain, vegetation and wood/plaster.

Masonry textures below are divded into two sections: stone and brick. The first stone texture, a photographic documentation from the slave castle on Bunce Island, is compared to the other more recent stone textures from architectural structures. The moss plant growth would not have been present during the operation of the slave castle.

Brick and mudbrick textures below are from photographic archives of the slave castle walls and adjacent island village houses. The bricks may have come from slave ships ballast while mudbrick was produced locally from a mixture of clay, mud, sand and a binding material of rice husks or straw and dried in the sun. Photographs of mudbrick wall structures offer a variety of construction techniques. Textures from these examples are applied to the digital reconstruction images of Bunce Island slave castle and village structures. Click the bottom right link to advance to the next texture reconstruction
Stone Textures
Brick and Mudbrick Textures

Terrain textures are divided into three sections: grass, sand and water. Sample textures below show a range of possiblilities for the digital model but not all have been selected for inclusion. They have been modified in scale and value to satisfy photorealistic criteria. As an example, the lower right grass texture has been modified by incorporating more dirt expressing worn areas while digitally removing grassy areas. Grass textures below are from a variety of sources, represent seasonal and climate changes and various degrees of wear pattern.

Sand textures from a variety of sources include photographic documention of beach areas on Bunce Island. Water textures from the Sierra Leone River range from calm and reflective on a sunny day to cloudy and overcast with reflections and windy conditions. The final image represents a digital reconstruction of the water when approaching the Bunce Island jetty.
Grass Textures
Sand Textures
Water Textures

Five recent photographs of Bunce Island vegetation are presented below. The top photograph represents, when approching the island by watercraft, the almost hidden slave castle by existing vegetation and the right photograph represents the pathway from the jetty to the slave castle. The second row shows ground cover vegetation currently seen from outside of the slave castle and around the merchant's dormitory.

The second section of four digital images illustrate reconstructed vegetation. The ground cover is prominent as most trees were removed at this time in history. After the digital terrain model creation, a ground cover texture is selected, scaled and mapped to the wireframe island. Two different textures are presented. The garden, located behind the men's slave yard, incorporated a variety of fruit trees including orange trees represented in this digital image. Ground cover, worn by increased foot traffic, would have been present. This texture, with variations depending on placement, is applied inside the slave castle and village areas, as well as the pathways between.
Current Vegetation Images
Reconstructed Vegetation  CAD images by Chatelain

Wood and Plaster
Wood and plaster textures below are divided into two sections. The six wood textures have been utilized throughout the digital reconstruction and can be seen in the slave castle decks, railings, stairs, flooring, well covering, window trim and shutters. The first texture in both rows illustrate color variation when compared. Flooring texture in the top center, was applied to decks and office tower floor. The upper right green painted texture was applied to slave castle stairs, railings and decks. Panelled doors in the second row introduced the more elaborate double door panelled entry into Bunce Island House. The final wood texture represents a wood panel with graining characteristics and square nailheads. Visit the homepage to see this texture with a keyhole and escutheon plate applied. For an unexpected event, move the cursor over the keyhole.

Two plaster textures illustrate the white lime plaster applied to mudbrick construction. The brick shapes can be seen where the plaster has worn away. From the slave castle, the bottom photograph illustrates color and texture variation present on remaining walls.
Wood Textures
Plaster Textures

Building Features European Artifacs